Papal honors

Several Pontiffs have honored the image, specifically:

  • Pope Benedict XIV, in the Papal bull Non Est Equidem of 25 May 1754, declared Our Lady of Guadalupe patroness of what was then named New Spain, corresponding to Spanish Central and Northern America, and approved liturgical texts for the Mass and the Breviary in her honor.
  • Pope Leo XIII granted new texts in 1891 and on 8 February 1887 authorized the canonical coronation of the image, which occurred on 12 October 1895.
  • Pope Pius X proclaimed her patron of Latin America in 1910.
  • Pope Pius XI declared Our Lady of Guadalupe the "Heavenly Patroness of the Philippines" on 16 July 1935 and the relevant Apostolic Letter was signed by Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII).[49][94][95] This was revised on 12 September 1942, when Pope Pius XII, by the Apostolic Letter Impositi Nobis constituted and declared the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Immaculate Conception as "Principal and Universal Patroness of the Philippine Islands", with Saint Pudentiana and Saint Rose of Lima constituted and declared to be the secondary patronesses.[96]
  • Pope Pius XII accorded her the title "Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas" in 1945, and "Patroness of the Americas" in 1946.
  • Pope John XXIII invoked her as "Mother of the Americas" in 1961, referring to her as Mother and Teacher of the Faith of All American populations.
  • Pope Paul VI gave the image a Golden Rose on 20 March 1966.[97][98]
  • Pope John Paul II visited her shrine on 26 January 1979, and again when he beatified Juan Diego there on 6 May 1990. In 1992, he dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe a chapel within Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. At the request of the Special Assembly for the Americas of the Synod of Bishops, he reiterated her title of Patroness of the Americas on 22 January 1999 and granted the rank of solemnity in that region. The same Supreme Pontiff included in the General Roman Calendar as an optional memorial the liturgical celebration of Our Lady of Guadalupe on 12 December.[97]
  • Pope Francis granted the image a second Golden Rose via Cardinal Marc Ouellet for presentation at the Basilica on 18 November 2013.[99] The same Supreme Pontiff granted a new gold-plated silver crown with an accompanying prayer to the image during his apostolic visit to the Basilica on 13 February 2016. On the crown was inscribed "Mater Mea, Spes Mea" ("My Mother [and] My Hope"). This crown is stored within the chancery and is not publicly worn by the image enshrined at the altar.